*Inertial Mass and the
Spin-1/2 Charged-Photon Model of the electron*

Recently added articles:

**March 1 2017 -- Derivation of the Inertial Mass m=Eo/c^2 of an Electron Composed of a Circling Spin-½ Charged
Photon**

www.superluminalquantum.org/Gauthier_Derivation_of_the_Inertial_Mass_28_Feb_2017.pdf

**November 2015 -- Electrons Are Spin ½
Charged Photons Generating the de Broglie Wavelength **

**2016 -- The electron is a charged photon
with the de Broglie Wavelength **(written before the above article but published after it.)

www.superluminalquantum.org/The_Electron_is_a_Charged_Photon_with_the_de_Broglie_wavelength.pdf

**2013 – Transluminal
Energy Quantum Models of the Photon and the Electron**

www.superluminalquantum.org/Transluminal_Energy_Quantum_Models_of_the_photon_and_the_electron.pdf

**1996 --Microvita:
A New Approach to Matter, Life and Health**

www.superluminalquantum.org/Microvita_A_New_Approach_to_Matter_Life_and_Health.pdf

*Transluminal**
Energy Quantum Models *

*of**
the Electron, the Photon, the Cosmic Quantum, and Dark Matter*

** **There is currently no generally accepted 3D spatial
model of the electron or the photon. The electron’s properties such as its spin
and magnetic moment are considered to be intrinsic, non-spatial properties, and
the electron is considered to be point-like in the theory of quantum
electrodynamics.

According to the transluminal
energy quantum (TEQ) models, the electron and the photon are each composed of one
point-like transluminal quantum particle. The electron’s
TEQ quantum moves superluminally 57% of the time and subluminally 43% of the
time in a closed helical trajectory. The photon’s TEQ always moves
superluminally in an open helical trajectory. TEQs have a wavelength and a
frequency of movement along their trajectories related to their momentum and
energy respectively. So TEQs have both wave-like and particle-like properties.

The Dirac equation is the relativistic quantum mechanical
equation for the electron. But the Dirac equation doesn’t provide a geometrical
structure or picture of the electron itself. It does however provide certain
physical characteristics of the electron, such as its spin and its magnetic
moment, a well as several physical features related to its rapid *Zitterbewegung* or
“jittery motion” described by Schrodinger in 1930 after analyzing solutions to
the Dirac equation for a free electron.

The TEQ model of the electron has many of the properties of
the Dirac electron, and has a 3D structure as well. It is generally assumed
that an electron cannot be visualized due to its quantum nature and properties.
But the TEQ model of the electron can be visualized and its internal trajectory
can be described precisely. See the January 2013 article below.

The Cosmic Quantum is the proposed first particle of the
universe, a kind of “primordial atom” of the universe but consisting of a
single quantum particle, from which the Big Bang emerged to formed our universe.
A TEQ model of the cosmic quantum is proposed, it a closed photon model having
the mass-energy of the entire observable universe. TEQ models for two dark
matter particles with similar structures to the cosmic quantum are also
proposed. See the December 2012 article and the January 2013 Powerpoint below.

**Was the first particle of our universe a
dark matter particle? **

I have a new hypothesis about the nature
and origin of dark matter particles. The hypothesis is that **the cosmic
quantum (the hypothesized first particle of our universe) was the first dark
matter particle**. Since dark matter and the evolution of the very
early universe are closely related, the unification of these two particle models
by a single structure (an internally transluminal
closed-loop photon) would be a significant development. Two non-baryonic dark
matter particle candidates, one a boson and the other a fermion (see www.superluminalquantum.org/cosmicquantum ) could arise causally as well as structurally from the
cosmic quantum. The cosmic quantum model (a boson) and the dark matter boson
have an identical internal energy structure (except for size and other
energy-related parameters). The dark matter particle nature as well as the
large amount of dark matter (compared to baryonic matter) in the early universe
are currently unexplained, but could be explained by the evolution of dark
matter particles from the original dark matter cosmic quantum. Since the
related internally transluminal electron and photon
models (see www.superluminalquantum.org/transluminal ) are derivable from the dark matter particle
candidates by changes in their energy structure and perhaps their charge, the
cosmological evolution of all physical particles in the universe could proceed
directly from the first quantum particle of the universe -- a dark matter
boson.

Comments are welcome.

Richard Gauthier

Santa Rosa Junior College

Santa Rosa, California

**March 2013** Powerpoint: **“****ATransluminal**** Energy Quantum Model of the Cosmic Quantum****”** for a presentation of the same name at the April national
meeting of the American Physical Society in Denver, Colorado taking place on
April 13-16, 2013, in section T14: New Directions in Astrophysics”.

**January 2013**
“**Transluminal**** Energy
Quantum Models of the Photon and the Electron**”

This article updates the
STAIF-2007 article (below) on the TEQ models of the photon and the electron. It
has been published in *The Physics of
Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos,* edited by Richard Amoroso, published
by World Scientific publishers, 2013.

**December 2012 ****“A Transluminal
Energy Quantum Model of the Cosmic Quantum”**

Planned
for presentation at the April national meeting of the American Physical Society
in Denver, Colorado on April 13-16, 2013, this article proposes that there was
a first particle in the universe, composed of a transluminal
energy quantum (TEQ). The cosmic quantum led to the Big Bang. The cosmic
quantum’s TEQ forms a closed photon, having the positive energy of the whole
universe in one particle. The TEQ’s maximum speed is the square root of 5, or 2.236
c and its minimum speed is c. The energy density of this cosmic quantum
particle is about 10^361 Joules/m^3. The TEQ cosmic quantum model suggests why
there may be more matter than antimatter in our universe, and that perhaps a
second TEQ cosmic quantum anti-particle was formed at the same time from a
proposed cosmic quantum field. The cosmic quantum anti-particle would evolve to
a separate anti-matter universe. This
article has been published in *The Physics
of Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos, *edited by Richard Amoroso,
published by World Scientific publishers, 2013.

**May 2009 ****Powerpoint**** presentation**** and article ****“Transluminal Energy Quantum (TEQ) Model of the Electron”**** for May 2-5
Denver American Physical Society meeting, in session T14 “New Directions in
Particle Theory”**

**February 2009 San Francisco Amateur Astronomers
presentation ****“Is Matter
Made of Light? The Transluminal Energy Quantum (TEQ)
Model of the Electron and the Photon”**

**November 2008 Sonoma County Astronomical Society
presentation ****“Is Matter
Made of Light?”**** Introduces the new concept of the Transluminal
Energy Quantum (TEQ).**

**February 2007 FTL quantum models
of the photon and the electron, peer-reviewed article published in the
Proceedings of STAIF-2007 (Space Technology and Applications International
Forum) held on February 11-15, 2007 at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque,
New Mexico, U.S.A.**

**February 2007 ****Powerpoint**** presentation**** and ****PDF version**** for “FTL
quantum models of the photon and the electron” for STAIF-2007.**

**April 2006 article for April 22-25 Dallas American
Physical Society meeting: ****Superluminal quantum models of the
electron and the photon**

**April 2006 ****Powerpoint****
presentation**** for April 22-25 Dallas American Physical Society
meeting**

**April 2006 article: ****The Dirac
equation and the superluminal electron model**

**February 2006 Superluminal summary article: ****Is matter
made of light?**

**December 2005 article submitted to physics journal: **

**Superluminal
quantum models of the electron and the photon**

**October 2005 Sacramento APS meeting: ****Short presentation**

**2005 article: Superluminal
quantum models of the photon and electron**

** **

**2003 article: ****Superluminal
helical models for the electron and photon**

** Presented at
the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, Philadelphia in April
2003, and the American Physical Society/American Association of Physics
Teachers regional meeting in Berkeley, CA in November 2003.**

**1997 article: “****Microvita**** and the structure of electrons and photons****”, ****an**** ****early
article linking microvita to electron and photon
structure.**

**1996 article: “****The new
concept of microvita****”.**** An introduction to the concept of living beings smaller and subtler
than electrons, which may be the carriers of life in the universe.**

**1993 article: “****Microvita****: a holistic paradigm for a new science of matter,
life and health****”. ****Presented at the Second Gauss Symposium, 2-8 August
1993 in Munich, Germany. Includes ideas relating microvita
to electrons and photons.**

**1988 book: “****Microvita****: Cosmic Seeds of Life****”. ****Written when
the author was a yogic monk living in Europe. Published in Mainz, Germany.
Builds on the concept of microvita introduced by P.R.
Sarkar in 1986.**

**Questions or comments are very welcome: ****e-mail contact**

Richard Gauthier, Ph.D.

B.Sc. Physics, M.I.T. 1967

M.Sc. Physics, University of
Illinois 1971

Ph.D. Experimental
Psychology, Stanford University 1977

Single Subject Teaching
Credential Program, Physics and Math, Sonoma State University 2005

Physics Instructor –
Sonoma State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Fall 2011 -
present

Physics Instructor –
Santa Rosa Junior College, Santa Rosa, CA, Fall 2006 - present

High school teacher and
substitute teacher, Sonoma County, CA, Fall 2003-
Summer 2006

Grant writer/advisor -- Polish
ecological organization ECEAT-Poland, 1997-2002

Yoga/meditation volunteer,
editor and teacher, Washington DC and Europe, 1981-1996

Human factors engineer, Bell
Labs, 1978-1981

Psychology instructor, San
Jose State University, 1976-78

**Last modified: March 1, 2017**

**Thanks to DP for many helpful suggestions.**