Inertial Mass and the Spin-1/2 Charged-Photon Model of the electron


Recently added articles:


March 1 2017 -- Derivation of the Inertial Mass m=Eo/c^2 of an Electron Composed of a Circling Spin-½ Charged Photon


November 2015 -- Electrons Are Spin ½ Charged Photons Generating the de Broglie Wavelength


2016 -- The electron is a charged photon with the de Broglie Wavelength (written before the above article but published after it.)


2013 – Transluminal Energy Quantum Models of the Photon and the Electron


1996 --Microvita: A New Approach to Matter, Life and Health




Transluminal Energy Quantum Models

of the Electron, the Photon, the Cosmic Quantum, and Dark Matter



         There is currently no generally accepted 3D spatial model of the electron or the photon. The electron’s properties such as its spin and magnetic moment are considered to be intrinsic, non-spatial properties, and the electron is considered to be point-like in the theory of quantum electrodynamics.


         According to the transluminal energy quantum (TEQ) models, the electron and the photon are each composed of one point-like transluminal quantum particle. The electron’s TEQ quantum moves superluminally 57% of the time and subluminally 43% of the time in a closed helical trajectory. The photon’s TEQ always moves superluminally in an open helical trajectory. TEQs have a wavelength and a frequency of movement along their trajectories related to their momentum and energy respectively. So TEQs have both wave-like and particle-like properties.


         The Dirac equation is the relativistic quantum mechanical equation for the electron. But the Dirac equation doesn’t provide a geometrical structure or picture of the electron itself. It does however provide certain physical characteristics of the electron, such as its spin and its magnetic moment, a well as several physical features related to its rapid Zitterbewegung or “jittery motion” described by Schrodinger in 1930 after analyzing solutions to the Dirac equation for a free electron.


         The TEQ model of the electron has many of the properties of the Dirac electron, and has a 3D structure as well. It is generally assumed that an electron cannot be visualized due to its quantum nature and properties. But the TEQ model of the electron can be visualized and its internal trajectory can be described precisely. See the January 2013 article below.


         The Cosmic Quantum is the proposed first particle of the universe, a kind of “primordial atom” of the universe but consisting of a single quantum particle, from which the Big Bang emerged to formed our universe. A TEQ model of the cosmic quantum is proposed, it a closed photon model having the mass-energy of the entire observable universe. TEQ models for two dark matter particles with similar structures to the cosmic quantum are also proposed. See the December 2012 article and the January 2013 Powerpoint below.



 Was the first particle of our universe a dark matter particle?


         I have a new hypothesis about the nature and origin of dark matter particles. The hypothesis is that the cosmic quantum (the hypothesized first particle of our universe) was the first dark matter particle.  Since dark matter and the evolution of the very early universe are closely related, the unification of these two particle models by a single structure (an internally transluminal closed-loop photon) would be a significant development. Two non-baryonic dark matter particle candidates, one a boson and the other a fermion (see ) could arise causally as well as structurally from the cosmic quantum. The cosmic quantum model (a boson) and the dark matter boson have an identical internal energy structure (except for size and other energy-related parameters). The dark matter particle nature as well as the large amount of dark matter (compared to baryonic matter) in the early universe are currently unexplained, but could be explained by the evolution of dark matter particles from the original dark matter cosmic quantum. Since the related internally transluminal electron and photon models  (see ) are derivable from the dark matter particle candidates by changes in their energy structure and perhaps their charge, the cosmological evolution of all physical particles in the universe could proceed directly from the first quantum particle of the universe -- a dark matter boson. 

     Comments are welcome.


Richard Gauthier

Santa Rosa Junior College

Santa Rosa, California


March 2013 Powerpoint: ATransluminal Energy Quantum Model of the Cosmic Quantum for a presentation of the same name at the April national meeting of the American Physical Society in Denver, Colorado taking place on April 13-16, 2013, in section T14: New Directions in Astrophysics”.


January 2013 Transluminal Energy Quantum Models of the Photon and the Electron

This article updates the STAIF-2007 article (below) on the TEQ models of the photon and the electron. It has been published in The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos, edited by Richard Amoroso, published by World Scientific publishers, 2013.


December 2012 “A Transluminal Energy Quantum Model of the Cosmic Quantum”

Planned for presentation at the April national meeting of the American Physical Society in Denver, Colorado on April 13-16, 2013, this article proposes that there was a first particle in the universe, composed of a transluminal energy quantum (TEQ). The cosmic quantum led to the Big Bang. The cosmic quantum’s TEQ forms a closed photon, having the positive energy of the whole universe in one particle. The TEQ’s maximum speed is the square root of 5, or 2.236 c and its minimum speed is c. The energy density of this cosmic quantum particle is about 10^361 Joules/m^3. The TEQ cosmic quantum model suggests why there may be more matter than antimatter in our universe, and that perhaps a second TEQ cosmic quantum anti-particle was formed at the same time from a proposed cosmic quantum field. The cosmic quantum anti-particle would evolve to a separate anti-matter universe. This article has been published in The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos, edited by Richard Amoroso, published by World Scientific publishers, 2013.


May 2009 Powerpoint presentation and article Transluminal Energy Quantum (TEQ) Model of the Electron” for May 2-5 Denver American Physical Society meeting, in session T14 “New Directions in Particle Theory”


February 2009 San Francisco Amateur Astronomers presentation “Is Matter Made of Light? The Transluminal Energy Quantum (TEQ) Model of the Electron and the Photon”


November 2008 Sonoma County Astronomical Society presentation “Is Matter Made of Light?” Introduces the new concept of the Transluminal Energy Quantum (TEQ).


February 2007  FTL quantum models of the photon and the electron, peer-reviewed article published in the Proceedings of STAIF-2007 (Space Technology and Applications International Forum) held on February 11-15, 2007 at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A.


February 2007 Powerpoint  presentation and PDF version for “FTL quantum models of the photon and the electron” for STAIF-2007.


April 2006 article for April 22-25 Dallas American Physical Society meeting: Superluminal quantum models of the electron and the photon


April 2006 Powerpoint presentation for April 22-25 Dallas American Physical Society meeting


April 2006 article: The Dirac equation and the superluminal electron model


February 2006 Superluminal summary article: Is matter made of light?


December 2005 article submitted to physics journal:

Superluminal quantum models of the electron and the photon


October 2005 Sacramento APS meeting: Short presentation


2005 article:  Superluminal quantum models of the photon and electron


2003 article: Superluminal helical models for the electron and photon

 Presented at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, Philadelphia in April 2003, and the American Physical Society/American Association of Physics Teachers regional meeting in Berkeley, CA in November 2003.


1997 article: “Microvita and the structure of electrons and photons”, an early article linking microvita to electron and photon structure.


1996 article: “The new concept of microvita”. An introduction to the concept of living beings smaller and subtler than electrons, which may be the carriers of life in the universe.


1993 article: “Microvita: a holistic paradigm for a new science of matter, life and health”. Presented at the Second Gauss Symposium, 2-8 August 1993 in Munich, Germany. Includes ideas relating microvita to electrons and photons.


1988 book: “Microvita: Cosmic Seeds of Life”. Written when the author was a yogic monk living in Europe. Published in Mainz, Germany. Builds on the concept of microvita introduced by P.R. Sarkar in 1986.


Questions or comments are very welcome: e-mail contact


Richard Gauthier, Ph.D.

B.Sc. Physics, M.I.T. 1967

M.Sc. Physics, University of Illinois 1971

Ph.D. Experimental Psychology, Stanford University 1977

Single Subject Teaching Credential Program, Physics and Math, Sonoma State University 2005


Physics Instructor – Sonoma State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Fall 2011 - present

Physics Instructor – Santa Rosa Junior College, Santa Rosa, CA, Fall 2006 - present

High school teacher and substitute teacher, Sonoma County, CA, Fall 2003- Summer 2006

Grant writer/advisor -- Polish ecological organization ECEAT-Poland, 1997-2002

Yoga/meditation volunteer, editor and teacher, Washington DC and Europe, 1981-1996

Human factors engineer, Bell Labs, 1978-1981

Psychology instructor, San Jose State University, 1976-78




Last modified: March 1, 2017

Thanks to DP for many helpful suggestions.